COMPLICATIONS IN RHINOPLASTY (Washington DC, Virginia & Chevy Chase Maryland)

 

As in any other surgery, there are risks and possibilities of complications and adverse outcomes after any Rhinoplasty and all prospective patients must be educated on the facts. Risks are minimized if the nasal reshaping surgery is performed by an experienced Plastic Surgeon, in the proper hospital setting, with Board Certified Anesthesiologists, and the patient is relatively healthy, with normal pre-operative work up and lab tests. However, cutting corners to save cost may lead to poor functional and cosmetic outcome or even life threatening complications such as meningitis or death. The old saying of “bargain shop for shoes not for your nose” is wise advice.

The risks must be outweighed against the benefits. This is why a safe and ethical surgeon like Dr. Naderi will tell you that if the goal of improving a certain part of the nose is not at the very least 20% then Rhinoplasty should be avoided. Improving a nose 5% is not worth the risks of any surgery. Put another way, if the area of the nose being addressed will at least improve 20% or more, then the benefits outweigh the risks. Sometime a nose can improve 100% by just improving the bump on the bridge or a bulbous tip and sometimes a nose that has undergone 5 or 6 bad previous rhinoplasties can be improved 100% by revising the entire nose. It’s all about goals and expectations.

Many patients unfortunately think Rhinoplasty is a simple procedure. Many patients think that Rhinoplasty is about simply removing a hump or reducing a “meaty tip” or lifting a droopy tip. While the end result may be just that, the skills required to accomplish that are unrivalled by other specialists in the field of Plastic Surgery. In fact Rhinoplasty is the most complex and intricate of all cosmetic surgeries. There are few other surgeries that affect a 3 dimensional structure (i.e. the nose), or that are performed in a 3 dimensional fashion. There are few surgeries where removing as little as 2mm, or a little over 1/16th of an inch, can result in major cosmetic and/or functional changes. Seldom do other operations’ results change for years to come due to healing and molding of scar tissue. In Rhinoplasty all of these issues must be understood and accounted by the plastic surgeon.

  1. Not a patient of Dr. Naderi. This is a patient of another world famous and well-respected Plastic Surgeon with nose tip necrosis (the skin died off, requiring major reconstruction). Courtesy: www.nosejobgonebad.com

2) Not a patient of Dr. Naderi. Patient of another plastic surgeon who had an implant in her nose instead of cartilage. Implant got infected. Courtesy: www.plasticsurgerypractice.com

Changing one aspect of the nose will usually change other aspects as well and the skilled Rhinoplasty Specialist Surgeon must be able to diagnose these issues and discuss these with the patient before surgery and be able to diagnose and deal with these issues during surgery. The seemingly “simple hump removal” or “simple Rhinoplasty” can be done in a very elegant and natural fashion with fantastic results, or an unskilled plastic surgeon can end up destroying an otherwise decent nose and creating much more harm than good. We routinely see patients who come in for Revision Rhinoplasty consultations who went elsewhere with noses that were in need of refinement but noses that nevertheless were not terrible by any means, yet an irresponsible cosmetic surgeon took on much more than he or she was capable of handling and ended up ruining the nose and the patient’s life as a result of a bad nose job.

(3-a, b, & c) Pictures of a patient who went to another famous plastic surgeon with poor judgment in rhinoplasty, who over aggressively reduced her nose resulting in extreme deformity. Such gross mistakes should practically never occur in the hands of a skillful Rhinoplasty Specialist.

Yet in the best-case scenario there are still risks that each prospective Rhinoplasty patient must be aware. The most common risks are post-operative nosebleeds, mild infections, and healing asymmetries. To put things in perspective, in our practice, post op nosebleeds occur once every 2-3 years or even less. However, we believe preparing patients for worse case scenarios leads to happier post-op patients who can easily deal with minimal complications should they arise. Thankfully, such complications at The Naderi Center are extremely rare.

Nevertheless, you can read the standard American Society of Plastic Surgery Rhinoplasty Consent Form below, which discusses many of the potential post Rhinoplasty complications that can or have ever occurred anywhere in the world.

Informed Consent: Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery –

(Rhinoplasty; Revision Rhinoplasty; Septoplasty; Turbinate Reduction;
Nasal Trauma Repair)

INSTRUCTIONS

This is an informed-consent document that has been prepared to help inform you about Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery, its risks, and alternative treatments.

It is important that you read this information carefully and completely. Please initial each page, indicating that you have read the page and sign the consent for surgery as proposed by your facial plastic surgeon.

GENERAL INFORMATION
Surgery of the nose (Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery) is an operation frequently performed by facial plastic surgeons. This surgical procedure can produce changes in the appearance, structure, and function of the nose. Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery can reduce or increase the size of the nose, change the shape of the tip, narrow the width of the nostrils, or change the angle between the nose and the upper lip. This operation can help correct birth defects, nasal injuries, and help relieve some breathing problems.

There is not a universal type of Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery that will meet the needs of every patient. Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery is customized for each patient, depending on his or her needs. Incisions may be made within the nose or concealed in inconspicuous locations of the nose in the “open” Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery procedure. In some situations, cartilage grafts, taken from within the nose or from other areas of the body (ear, ribs, frozen rib, etc) may be recommended in order to help reshape the structure of the nose. Fascia or Alloderm may also be needed during surgery. Internal nasal surgery to improve nasal breathing can be performed at the time of the Cosmetic Nasal Surgery.

The best candidates for this type of surgery are individuals who are looking for improvement, not perfection, in the appearance and function of their nose. In addition to realistic expectations, good health and psychological stability are important qualities for a patient considering Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery. Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery can be performed in conjunction with other surgeries.

ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT
Alternative forms of management consist of not undergoing the Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery. Certain internal nasal airway disorders may not require surgery on the exterior of the nose. Risks and potential complications are associated with alternative surgical forms of treatment. Occasionally fillers may be injected to the nose for a "non surgical Rhinoplasty." Medical management of sinus disorders and allergies may be necessary by your general Otolaryngologist or Primary Care doctor.

RISKS OF COSMETIC & FUNCTIONAL NASAL SURGERY SURGERY
Every surgical procedure involves a certain amount of risk and it is important that you understand these risks and the possible complications associated with them. In addition, every procedure has limitations. An individual’s choice to undergo a surgical procedure is based on the comparison of the risk to potential benefit. Although the majority of patients do not experience the following complications, you should discuss each of them with your facial plastic surgeon to make sure you understand the risks, potential complications, and consequences of Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery.

Bleeding- It is possible, though unusual, to experience a bleeding episode during or after surgery. Intra-operative blood transfusions may be required. Should post-operative bleeding occur, it may require an emergency treatment to drain the accumulated blood or blood transfusion. Hypertension (high blood pressure) that is not under good medical control may cause bleeding during or after surgery. Accumulations of blood under the skin may delay healing and cause scarring. Do not take any aspirin or anti-inflammatory medications for ten days before or after surgery, as this may increase the risk of bleeding. Non-prescription "herbs" and dietary supplements and drinks can increase the risk of surgical bleeding. Hematoma can occur at any time following injury. If blood transfusions are necessary to treat blood loss, there is the risk of blood-related infections such as hepatitis and HIV (AIDS). Heparin & Coumadin and Plavix medications that are used to prevent blood clots in veins can produce bleeding and decreased blood platelets. Control of bleeding may require packing, cauterization, embolization or further surgical treatments.

Infection- Infection is unusual after surgery. Should an infection occur, additional treatment including antibiotics, hospitalization, or additional surgery may be necessary. Toxic Shock is a very rare type of life threatening infection, usually as a result of Nasal Packing.

Scarring- All surgery creates and leaves scars, some more visible than others. Although good wound healing after a surgical procedure is expected, abnormal scars may occur within the skin and deeper tissues. Your body creates scar tissue. Scars may be unattractive and of different color than the surrounding skin tone. Scar appearance may also vary within the same scar. Scars may be asymmetrical. There is the possibility of visible marks in the skin from sutures. In some cases scars may require surgical revision or treatment. Scars are permanent.

Damage to Deeper Structures- There is the potential for injury to deeper structures including nerves, tear ducts, blood vessels, muscles, brain, and lungs (pneumothorax) during any surgical procedure. The potential for this to occur varies according to the type of Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery procedure being performed. Injury to deeper structures may be temporary or permanent &/or life threatening.

Change in Skin Sensation- It is common to experience diminished (or loss) of skin sensation in areas that have had surgery. There is the potential for permanent numbness within the nasal skin after Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery. The occurrence of this is not predictable. Diminished (or loss) of skin sensation in the nasal area may not totally resolve after Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery.

Asymmetry- The human face is normally asymmetrical. There can be a variation from one side to the other in the results obtained from Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery. Additional surgery may be necessary to attempt to revise asymmetry but perfect symmetry is often unrealistic and impossible. Your body will create scar tissue, which will change the symmetry of the nose with time.

Skin Discoloration / Swelling- Some bruising and swelling normally occurs following Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery. The skin in or near the surgical site can appear either lighter or darker than surrounding skin. Although uncommon, swelling and skin discoloration may persist for long periods of time and, in rare situations, may be permanent.

Seroma- Fluid accumulations infrequently occur in between the skin and the underlying tissues. Should this problem occur, it may require additional procedures for drainage of fluid.

Pain- You will experience pain after your surgery. Pain of varying intensity and duration may occur and persist after Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery. Chronic permanent pain may occur very infrequently from nerves becoming trapped in scar tissue.

Allergic Reactions- In rare cases, local allergies to tape, suture materials and glues, blood products, topical preparations or injected agents have been reported. Serious life threatening systemic reactions including shock (anaphylaxis) may occur to drugs used during surgery and prescription medications. Allergic reactions may require additional treatment.

Delayed Healing- Fracture disruption or delayed wound healing is possible. Some areas of the nose may not heal normally and may take a long time to heal. Areas of skin may die or necrose. This may require frequent dressing changes or further surgery to remove the non-healed tissue. Smokers and Revision patients have a greater risk of skin loss and wound healing complications.

Skin Sensitivity- Itching, tenderness, or exaggerated responses to hot or cold temperatures may occur after surgery. Usually this resolves during healing, but in rare situations it may be chronic.

Nasal Septal Perforation- Infrequently, a hole in the nasal septum will develop. The occurrence of this is rare. Additional surgical treatment may be necessary to repair the nasal septum. In some cases, it may be impossible to correct this complication. Crusting, whistling or nasal collapse may occur with varying side holes.

Nasal Airway Alterations- Changes may occur after a Cosmetic &/or Functional Nasal Surgery that may interfere with normal passage of air through the nose. "Runny nose" or "dry nose" may be a side effect of nasal surgery. Sometimes these problems become psychologically and physically overbearing.

Surgical Anesthesia- Both local and general anesthesia involve risk. There is the possibility of complications, injury, and even death from all forms of surgical anesthesia or sedation.

Substance Abuse Disorders- Individuals with substance abuse problems that involve the inhalation of vaso-constrictive drugs such as cocaine or Afrin are at risk for major complications including poor healing and nasal septal perforation.

Skin Contour Irregularities- Contour irregularities may occur. Residual skin irregularities at the ends of the incisions or "dog ears" are always a possibility and may require additional surgery. This may improve with time, or it can be surgically corrected. Occasionally this is permanent.

Sutures- Most surgical techniques use deep sutures. You may notice these sutures after your surgery. Sutures may spontaneously poke through the skin, become visible or produce irritation that requires removal. “Permanent sutures” may need to be removed surgically.

Unsatisfactory Result- Although good results are expected, there is no guarantee or warranty expressed or implied, on the results that may be obtained. You, &/or your friends and family, may be disappointed with the results of your Cosmetic &/or Functional Nasal Surgery. This would include risks such as asymmetry, loss of function, structural malposition, unacceptable visible or tactile deformities, unsatisfactory surgical scar location, poor healing, wound disruption, and loss of sensation. It may be necessary to perform additional surgery to attempt to improve your results.

Shock- In rare circumstances, your surgical procedure can cause severe trauma, particularly when multiple or extensive procedures are performed. Although serious complications are infrequent, infections or excessive fluid loss can lead to severe illness and even death. If surgical shock occurs, hospitalization and additional treatment would be necessary.

Cardiac and Pulmonary Complications- Surgery, especially longer procedures, may be associated with the formation of, or increase in, blood clots in the venous system. Pulmonary complications may occur secondarily to both blood clots (pulmonary emboli), fat deposits (fat emboli) or partial collapse of the lungs after general anesthesia. Pulmonary and fat emboli can be life-threatening or fatal in some circumstances. Air travel, inactivity and other conditions may increase the incidence of blood clots traveling to the lungs causing a major blood clot that may result in death. It is important to discuss with your physician any past history of blood clots or swollen legs that may contribute to this condition. Cardiac complications are a risk with any surgery and anesthesia, even in patients without symptoms. If you experience shortness of breath, chest pains, or unusual heart beats, seek medical attention immediately. Should any of these life threatening complications occur, you may require hospitalization and additional treatment. A dropped lung can occur as a risk of anesthesia &/or rib harvest from your chest wall.

ADDITIONAL ADVISORIES

GRAFTS, etc- During Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery the surgeon may require additional graft material. Septal cartilage is usually the first choice but ear cartilage, rib cartilage, Frozen rib cartilage, Temporalis fascia, Alloderm, etc, are some other potentially necessary grafts or materials for your surgery. Additional scars, risks and costs may be associated with these but they are used only if needed for the best possible results.

Skin Disorders / Skin Cancer- Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery is a surgical procedure to reshape of both internal and/or external structure of the nose. Skin disorders and skin cancer may occur independently of a Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery.

Long-Term Results- Subsequent alterations in nasal appearance do occur as the result of healing after Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery, or as a result of aging, weight loss or gain, sun exposure, exercise, pregnancy, menopause, or other circumstances not related to Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery. Future surgery or other treatments may be necessary.

Female Patient Information- It is important to inform your facial plastic surgeon if you use birth control pills, estrogen replacement, or if you believe you may be pregnant. Many medications including antibiotics may neutralize the preventive effect of birth control pills, allowing for conception and pregnancy.

Intimate Relations After Surgery- Surgery involves coagulating of blood vessels and increased activity of any kind may open these vessels leading to a bleed, or hematoma. Activity that increases your pulse or heart rate may cause additional bruising, swelling, and the need for return to surgery and control bleeding. It is wise to refrain from sexual activity until your physician states it is safe.

Smoking, Second-Hand Smoke Exposure, Nicotine Products (Patch, Gum, Nasal Spray)-
Patients who are currently smoking, use tobacco products, or nicotine products (patch, gum, or nasal spray) are at a greater risk for significant surgical complications of skin dying, delayed healing, and additional scarring. Individuals exposed to second-hand smoke are also at potential risk for similar complications attributable to nicotine exposure. Additionally, smoking may have a significant negative effect on anesthesia and recovery from anesthesia, with coughing and possibly increased bleeding. Individuals who are not exposed to tobacco smoke or nicotine-containing products have a significantly lower risk of this type of complication. Please indicate your current status regarding these items below:

______ I am a non-smoker and do not use nicotine products. I understand the risk of second- hand smoke exposure causing surgical complications.
______ I am a smoker or use tobacco / nicotine products. I understand the risk of surgical complications due to smoking or use of nicotine products.

It is important to refrain from smoking at least 6 weeks before surgery and until your physician states it is safe to return, if desired.

Mental Health Disorders and Elective Surgery- It is important that all patients seeking to undergo elective surgery have realistic expectations that focus on improvement rather than perfection. Complications or less than satisfactory results are sometimes unavoidable, may require additional surgery and often are stressful. Please openly discuss with your surgeon, prior to surgery, any history that you may have of significant emotional depression or mental health disorders. Although many individuals may benefit psychologically from the results of elective surgery, effects on mental health cannot be accurately predicted. Happy and optimistic patients often do better after elective surgery.

MEDICATIONS- There are many adverse reactions that occur as the result of taking over-the- counter, herbal, and/or prescription medications. Be sure to check with your physician about any drug interactions that may exist with medications which you are already taking. If you have an adverse reaction, stop the drugs immediately and call your doctor for further instructions. If the reaction is severe, go immediately to the nearest emergency room. When taking the prescribed pain medications after surgery, realize that they can affect your thought process and coordination. Do not drive, do not operate complex equipment, do not make any important decisions, and do not drink any alcohol while taking these medications. Be sure to take your prescribed medication only as directed. Patients who are or have taken Accutane for treatment of acne or any other reason cannot undergo elective surgery for at least 6-12 months after stopping the medication. Serious scarring may result otherwise.

PATIENT COMPLIANCE
Follow all physician instructions carefully; this is essential for the success of your outcome. It is important that the surgical incisions are not subjected to excessive force, swelling, abrasion, or motion during the time of healing. Personal and vocational activity needs to be restricted. Protective dressings and splints should not be removed unless instructed by your facial plastic surgeon. Successful post-operative function and outcome depends on both surgical technique, your body’s healing course, and subsequent care. Physical activity that increases your pulse or heart rate may cause bruising, swelling, scar tissue, fluid accumulation and the need for return to surgery. It is wise to refrain from intimate physical activities &/or exercise after surgery until your physician states it is safe. It is important that you participate in follow-up care, return for aftercare, and promote your recovery after surgery. It is important to discuss your concerns with your surgeon rather than ignore them, or discuss them with others who do not know the details of your surgery and intra-operative findings.

HEALTH INSURANCE
Most health insurance companies exclude coverage for cosmetic surgical operations or any complications that might occur from cosmetic surgery. If the procedure corrects a breathing problem or marked deformity after a nasal fracture, a portion may be covered. Many insurance plans exclude coverage for secondary or revisionary surgery. Please carefully review your health insurance subscriber-information pamphlet. You may be responsible for fees not covered by your insurance.

FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES
The cost of surgery involves several charges for the services provided. The total includes fees charged by your doctor, the cost of surgical supplies, anesthesia, laboratory tests, and hospital charges, depending on where the surgery is performed. Depending on whether the cost of surgery is covered by an insurance plan, you will be responsible for necessary co-payments, deductibles, and charges not covered. Additional costs may occur should complications develop from the surgery. Secondary surgery or hospital day surgery charges involved with revisionary surgery would also be your responsibility. Your facial plastic surgeon or his/her practice is not responsible for any such fees.

ADDITIONAL SURGERY NECESSARY
There are many variable conditions that may influence the long-term result from Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery. Secondary surgery may be necessary to obtain improved results. Should complications occur, additional surgery or other treatments may be necessary. Even though risks and complications occur infrequently, the risks cited are particularly associated with Cosmetic & Functional Nasal Surgery. Other complications and risks can occur but are even more uncommon. The practice of medicine and surgery is not an exact science. Although good results are expected, there is no guarantee or warranty expressed or implied, on the results that may be obtained. In some situations, it may not be possible to achieve optimal results with a single or even multiple surgical procedure. Your body’s healing is out of your or your surgeon’s control and contributes significantly to your final outcome.

DISCLAIMER
Informed-consent documents are used to communicate information about the proposed surgical treatment of a disease or condition along with disclosure of risks and alternative forms of treatment(s), including no surgery. The informed-consent process attempts to define principles of risk disclosure that should generally meet the needs of most patients in most circumstances.

However, informed-consent documents should not be considered all inclusive in defining other methods of care and risks encountered. Your facial plastic surgeon may provide you with additional or different information, which is based on all the facts in your particular case and the current state of medical knowledge.

Informed-consent documents are not intended to define or serve as the standard of medical care. Standards of medical care are determined on the basis of all of the facts involved in an individual case and are subject to change as scientific knowledge and technology advance and as practice patterns evolve.

It is important that you read the above information carefully and have all of your questions answered before signing the consent on the next page.